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Debt collection agencies are specialists in pursuing debts on behalf of other companies. It’s crucial to note you might not be obligated to pay a Debt Collection Agency, but dismissing them is not advisable as it could lead to more stringent enforcement actions.

So, what are your options, and how can you navigate through this? We will guide you.

Riana Johnson
Last updated on 27 September 2023
Fact Checked

Table of Contents

1. What is a Debt Collection Agency?
2. What Can A Debt Collection Agency Do?
3. What Should I Do if a Debt Collector or a Debt Collection Agency Contacts Me?
4. Debt Solutions if You Can’t Afford to Pay Off Your Debt
5. Can a Collector From A Debt Collection Agency Visit My House to Collect Debt?
6. Can A Debt Collection Agency Affect My Credit Score?
7. How Do I Complain About a Debt Collection Agency?
8. Should You Check For Other Debt Collection Agencies?
9. Where Can I Get Professional Advice About A Debt Collection Agency?
10. Conclusion
10. Key Points


What is a Debt Collection Agency?

A Debt Collection Agency is more than just a firm; it’s a specialised entity that helps to recover debts by chasing debtors. This indicates that they will reach out to you with regard to any debts and ask you to pay them off.

Working on Behalf of Creditors or Owning the Debt

They operate in two main capacities. Either work diligently on behalf of creditors to recover debt, becoming their representative, or they take a step further. They purchase debts from the original creditor, stepping into the shoes of the creditors thereby becoming the new legal owners of the debt.

If a creditor doesn’t receive a payment straight up, they may hire a debt collection agency to do it for them. Thereafter, the debt collection agency will chase the debtor on behalf of the creditor. In this case, the original creditor is the individual that the debtor owes to.

When it comes to owning the debt, the creditor sells the debt to a debt collection agency as they are dissatisfied with the amount that the debtor is paying or they believe they won’t ever be able to recover it. Thus, selling the debt to a debt collection agency is their only option.

Located Throughout the UK

While many are located in London, the presence of debt collection agencies is widespread throughout the UK. It’s a network, a web of agencies working in unison, each playing its part in the debt recovery process.

Operating Under Strict Guidelines

The list of debt collection agencies in the UK is extensive. Each operates under the strict guidelines set by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA).

It’s their compass, guiding their practices to ensure fairness, transparency, and lawfulness in debt recovery. It’s about maintaining a balance ensuring rights and duties are respected.

The Role They Play

The role of a debt collection agency is multifaceted. It’s about being the mediator, the negotiator, and sometimes, the owner of the debt. It’s a pivotal role, ensuring that the wheels of the financial ecosystem keep turning smoothly, maintaining the balance between creditors and debtors.

So, a Debt Collection Agency is a beacon in the financial world, a specialised entity that stands at the crossroads between creditors and debtors, ensuring the smooth flow of credit in the market. It’s about upholding the principles of fairness, transparency, and lawfulness, a task that’s crucial in today’s fast-paced financial landscape.

What Can A Debt Collection Agency Do?

Debt Recovery Agencies, especially those listed among the top 10 debt collection agencies, are bound by the law and have no extra-legal powers. They can contact debtors and arrange repayments but cannot enforce any legal action or threaten debtors without proper authority.

They must adhere strictly to the rules and guidelines of the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) and respect the rights of debtors. Any violation of these guidelines can be reported, and the agencies can face serious repercussions.

It’s essential to know that the biggest debt collection agencies in the UK, such as Cabot Financial and Lowell Financial, are known for their adherence to these guidelines and their professional conduct in debt recovery.

Some things that debt collection agencies are not allowed to do include:

  • Calling you at unreasonable times.
  • Visit your home even after you ask them to contact you only through post or phone.
  • Forcibly enter your home and seize your possessions.
  • Pretend to be bailiffs.
  • Discuss your debts with anyone other than you.

Furthermore, keep in mind debt collection agencies can go to court against you if you refuse to pay them. But proving that you’re trying your best to find a solution to pay is the best way to avoid this. As long as they have the assurance that you’re working on paying off whatever you owe, they will keep going to court as a last resort.

What Should I Do if a Debt Collector or a Debt Collection Agency Contacts Me?

When a Debt Collection Agency reaches out, it’s vital not to ignore them. Ignoring can escalate the situation, leading to more complications.

Verify the Legitimacy

Firstly, confirm the legitimacy of the debt and the agency. It’s crucial. Ask yourself, is the debt familiar? Is the agency listed among the recognised debt collection agencies in the UK? If the debt is legitimate, cooperation is key.

In order to do this, ask the debt collector to show their ID. Note that if you ask them this, they are obligated to identify themselves. Afterwards, ask them why they are contacting you. If you don’t identify the debt that they are talking about, inform them that you will confirm after checking your credit report.

If it’s not visible on your credit report and if the debt collectors keep asking you to pay, you can make a complaint against them to the Financial Ombudsman Service (FOS) or the FCA. But if you do owe the debt, you’re obligated to pay.

Alternatively, in order to confirm the legitimacy of the debt, send a Prove the Debt Letter to the company. In this case, they should provide you with proof of documents that you have signed with your original creditor.

If they prove that the debt is yours, then it’s important that you cooperate with them. Tell them that you’re doing your best to pay off the debt. Sending a copy of your income and expenditure is also a good idea as these are proof that you’re trying your best to pay.

Payment plans and debt solutions are also options which can help you pay the debt. However, we will discuss this in detail towards the end of the article.

Negotiate a Payment Plan

If the debt is valid, it’s wise to cooperate and possibly negotiate a suitable payment plan. It’s about finding a middle ground, a plan that suits your financial capabilities. Simply express your willingness to pay and discuss your financial situation openly.

  • Be Honest: Clearly state your income and expenditures.
  • Be Clear: Specify what you can afford to pay.
  • Be Consistent: Stick to the agreed payment plan.
Dispute Old Debts

If your debt is six years old, there is a chance that it might be statute-barred. This indicates that it is not enforceable. But this does not mean your debt doesn’t exist. It means that the debt collection agency cannot go to court against you for it.

However, for a debt to be statute-barred, it should meet the following criteria:

  • You have not made any payments in the last six years.
  • You have not admitted to owing the debt in the last six years.
  • You have not received a County Court Judgment (CCJ) for it.

Note that certain debts, such as HMRC debts, cannot become statute-barred as they are enforceable for decades.

If you find out that your debt is statute-barred, inform the debt collectors. But we recommend you get advice on this situation before you take any action. You can always reach out to a debt charity for free advice, such as:

  • National Debtline
  • StepChange
  • Citizens Advice
Maintain Records

Keep records of all communications with the debt collection agency. It’s crucial. It’s about having a clear trail, a reference point in case of disputes.

  • Note Dates: When did the agency contact you?
  • Record Conversations: What was discussed and agreed upon?
  • Keep Emails and Letters: What has been the written communication?
Open Communication

Maintaining open, honest communication is essential. It’s the golden key to resolving any potential disputes and finding amicable solutions. It’s about building a bridge between you and the agency, fostering understanding and mutual respect.

Know Your Rights

Remember, a debt collection agency must adhere to the guidelines set by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA). Knowing your rights is empowering as it helps you to be informed and prepared.

Debt Solutions if You Can’t Afford to Pay Off Your Debt

We recommend taking up debt solutions if you can’t afford to pay. But getting advice from a debt advisor is crucial as choosing the right debt solution will help to write off debt but choosing the wrong option will be expensive to deal with and may even complicate your situation. So always choose wisely.

If you want advice regarding this, feel free to fill out our online form, and our Money Advisor Team will guide you. Or simply reach out to a debt charity for free advice and guidance. However, some debt solutions that are available in the UK are as follows:

Debt Solutions Available in the UK
  • Debt Management Plan (DMP)– helps you to pay debts through an affordable monthly payment. It’s not legally binding as it’s informal.
  • Individual Voluntary Arrangement (IVA)– an agreement between you and your creditors. You agree to pay a sum every month, and your creditors agree not to contact you during this time. An IVA lasts for 5 to 6 years, and at the end of this period, any remaining debt gets written off. To be eligible for an IVA, you should owe a large amount to multiple creditors.
  • Trust Deed– This is an alternative to an IVA as IVAs are not available in Scotland. It works the same way as an IVA.
  • Debt Relief Order– suitable for anyone with little income and no assets. You make no payment for 12 months, and your creditors freeze your interest during this time. If your finances don’t improve within this time, you might be able to write off the debts.
  • Bankruptcy– you can declare bankruptcy if you have no possibility of ever paying off your debts. Even though it gives debtors a fresh start, do not take it lightly, as it is a serious financial situation.
  • Sequestration– this is available for individuals in Scotland, and it is the same as bankruptcy. If you have low income and no assets, you might be able to apply for a MAP (Minimal Asset Process Bankruptcy). This is a much cheaper and faster option.

Can a Collector From A Debt Collection Agency Visit My House to Collect Debt?

Yes, but it’s uncommon and usually the last resort. Debt collectors can visit, but they can’t force entry or harass you. However, debt collection agencies usually contact through phone or post.

But if a debt collector visits your house, you’re not obligated to open the door. Asking them to leave is always an option. Maintaining your rights and setting clear boundaries are crucial in dealing with debt collectors.

Also, note that they don’t have more powers than your original creditor. If you don’t want them coming to your home, you can tell them. They should respect your request as it’s mentioned in the FCA rules and guidelines. But they have the right to contact you in at least one way. In this case, you can ask them to contact you in the following ways.


The phone is a convenient as well as a less time-consuming option. Despite this, it has a disadvantage. When you speak with them over a call, you won’t have any proof of the agreements you make with them. It will all be verbal. This is why we recommend you use letters.


Letters are also a common mode of contact. But this is more beneficial than phone calls because it gives you proof for the future in case you face any issues. Despite this, letters are time-consuming, and you won’t get an immediate response for it.

Can A Debt Collection Agency Affect My Credit Score?

Absolutely. Debt collectors can significantly impact your credit score. Once a debt is sold to collectors, it will appear as a collection account on your credit file, negatively impacting your credit. These marks stay visible for six years, affecting your financial credibility and your ability to acquire credit.

This is because lenders usually check your credit report before giving credit. So, if your credit report has CCJs or debt collectors, they will consider you as a high-risk customer.

However, your credit report will improve after six years. By that time, you will be able to receive credit again. It’s essential to address these debts promptly to mitigate the impact on your credit score and to maintain healthy financial standing.

How Do I Complain About a Debt Collection Agency?

If a debt collection agency treated you unfairly or took part in any actions that can be listed as harassment, you can make a complaint against them. First, directly complain to the company.

If they don’t provide a satisfying response or a solution, you can escalate the complaint to the Financial Ombudsman Service (FOS). They will investigate and take action against the debt collection agency. This includes:

  • Fines
  • Compensations
  • Suspensions
  • Removal of licence

Also, if you believe they have broken any of the FCA rules and guidelines, you can directly make a complaint to the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA).

Should You Check For Other Debt Collection Agencies?

Given the rising personal debt in the UK, it’s prudent to be vigilant and check for any other debts regularly. Managing multiple debts effectively is crucial to avoid financial strain.

Regularly reviewing bank statements, emails, and correspondence can help in identifying any other debts early and addressing them before they escalate. Being proactive in managing your debts can save you from potential financial distress in the future.

Some well-known debt collection companies to watch out for on your credit report include:

  • Cabot Financial
  • Lowell Financial
  • PRA Group

Where Can I Get Professional Advice About A Debt Collection Agency?

Several organisations and charities in the UK offer free professional advice and counselling services for managing debts effectively. These organisations can provide you with insights, resources, and support to navigate through your debt management journey and help you make informed decisions.

Some of these debt charities you can reach out to include:

  • StepChange
  • National Debtline
  • Citizens Advice
  • Debt Advice Foundation.


Understanding the role, limitations, and rights of a debt collection agency is crucial in managing debts effectively. Whether dealing with a debt collection agency in London or any other part of the UK, being informed and proactive can help in navigating through the complexities of debt recovery and maintaining financial stability.

Key Points

  • A Debt Collection Agency is a specialised entity, often based in London and throughout the UK, focusing on recovering unpaid debts playing a pivotal role in maintaining the fluidity of credit in the market.
  • These agencies either work on behalf of creditors to recover debts or purchase debts themselves, becoming the new legal owners and, thus, are integral in arranging repayments and contacting debtors.
  • All agencies operate under the stringent guidelines of the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) in the UK, ensuring that all debt recovery practices are fair, transparent, and lawful, without any extra-legal powers over debtors.
  • For individuals unable to afford repayments, several options are available, including Individual Voluntary Arrangement (IVA), Debt Management Plan (DMP), or Debt Relief Order (DRO), allowing many in the UK to legally write off some of their debt.
  • It is crucial for debtors to seek advice from professionals or debt charities to understand their rights options and to navigate through the debt recovery process effectively.
  • Maintaining open and honest communication with the debt collection agency is essential in resolving disputes and negotiating suitable payment plans, ensuring mutual understanding and respect between debtors and agencies.
  • Verifying the legitimacy of the debt and the agency is the first step when contacted by a debt collection agency. If the debt isn’t recognised, debtors have the right to dispute it and seek proof.
  • The involvement of a debt collection agency can affect credit scores, making it imperative for individuals to address the issues promptly and maintain a healthy financial status.
  • The commitment to fair, transparent, and lawful practices by the agencies is paramount in upholding the principles of fairness in the debt recovery process.

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